**Development of Computers:**From Abacuss used in BC 3000 for counting to micro-computers of today, have undergone tremendous changes. Logarithm for mathematical calculations was invented in 1614 by John Napier followed by William Oughtred's Slide Rule, a calculating device in 1610.

Mechanical calculators for Addition and Subtraction was first developed with the help of gears, wheels and dials in 1642 by Basic Pascal. Gottfried Von Leibaiz improved Pascal's to Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide and extract Roots though nobody could make a machine for it.

Charls Babbage (1792-1871) made the Difference Engine for Algebric Expressions and Math Tables corrected upto 20 decimal places. He later developed the Analytical Machine to do additions with memory. Lady Agusta ADA Lovelace - a Mathamatician corrected Babbage's work. She is often referred to as the First Computer Programmer. The ADA Programming Language is named after her.

In 1801 **Punched Cards** were invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard and used in Looms for weaving designs on cloth but only in 1887 it was used as a medium for data processing.

Herman Hollerith developed machine readable card by a census machine for tabulation. Hollerith in 1896 founded a tabulating machine company and later merged it with others to form IBM.

**Mark-I** digital computer was developed by Aiken, with automatic calculating machine using electrical and mechanical technology.

Using Vacuum Tubes for storage and arithemetic and logic functions, (Alanasoff-Berry Computers) made electric computers (Special Purpose).**E.N.I.A.C. (Electronic Numeric Integrater And Calculator)** of early 40s was the 1st electronic general purpose computer, used 18000 vaccum tubes weighing 30 tons. It could do 300 multiplications per second. In mid 40s John Von Neuman suggested using Binary Number System for building computers and store data with instructions internally. Modern computers can be called Neuman machines because of these concepts.

The **E.D.S.A.C. (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)** the first stored program Electronic Computer was finished in 1949.

In early 1951, **Univac-1 (Universal Automatic Computer)** become operational. In 1954 the first computer for data processing and record keeping for business called UNIVAC-I was made. The IBM started producing Computers in 1955 and took the leadership in the computer field.

Next: Computer Generations

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